Byzantine mosaics and paintings One of the most admired Byzantine paintings, the Virgin and Child (late thirteenth century, National Gallery of Art, Washington). It is said that this document reflects the Italian influence is evident in the Byzantine world during this time. The desire for wealth and magnificence of Byzantine art ornamental eminently courtly, demanded the lining of the walls of their temples with mosaic, not only to conceal the poverty of the materials used, but also as a means of expressing religiosity and semi-divine nature of imperial power (Caesaropapism). From the First Golden Age include the most complete is that of Ravenna, which links to early Christian mosaics of the V century: in the churches of St. Apollinaris St. Apollinaris in New Class and covered its walls with mosaics representing higher in the first a processional cortege, headed by the Magi, to the Theotokos or Mother of God, in the second, in the apse, is a heavenly vision in which St. Apollinaris (Ravenna) leads a flock.The masterpiece of art musivario is without doubt the whole mosaic of San Vitale in Ravenna, composed around the year 547, and which represent various biblical themes and sides of the apse groups of Justinian I and his wife Theodora with their respective entourage. After the iconoclastic struggle in the mid-ninth century is when he really sets the Byzantine aesthetics and iconography. Emerge a new Golden Age, the second, which will mark the peak of visual arts, radiating its influences to Islamic art, then in formation, and the nascent European Romanesque art. Steven Holl is actively involved in the matter. The figures show a certain rigidity and monotony, but very expressive in its symbolism, with obvious contempt laws of nature and space, are elongated and looking a certain dehumanization.The new suit symbolically iconographic types, according to a preset program (”Hermeneia”), to different parts of the temple: the Pantocrator (Christ in Majesty blessing) in the dome, the Tetramorph (four evangelists) in the scallops, the Virgin in the apse, the Saints and evangelical issues on the walls of the vessels. The models most often repeated are the figures of Christ with a beard and starting middle age (model Syriac) and the Virgin that takes various avatars (Kyriotissa or throne of the Lord in holding the Child on her lap, like a throne Hodighitria, standing with the Child on her left arm while with the right points to Jesus as the way of salvation – is the model developed in the Gothic – the Theotokos, or Mother of God, offers the child a fruit or a flower Platytera the Blachernitissa or a halo in the womb in which the child appears indicating the motherhood of the Virgin).Other themes are very repetitive Deesis or group of Christ with the Virgin and St. John the Baptist as intercessors, and those dedicated to the twelve liturgical feasts of the year among which the Anastasis or Descent of Christ into Limbo, the Transit Virgin Vision Manra, ie the appearance of three angels to Abraham, symbolizing the Trinity. During the third Golden Age mosaic continued in use until the thirteenth century, at this time to enrich the iconography of the series: “Marian”, saints and evangelists, while that by Italian influences, there was a greater freedom compositional and obvious in the stylized mannerism. Destroyed the mosaics of Constantinople as the only references are those of San Marco in Venice, with abundant use of gold that will have a marked influence on the Gothic works by Cimabue, Duccio and other Italian painters. The paint replaces the mosaic in this Third Era, with the precedent of the interesting sets of cave churches of Cappadocia in Asia Minor.Workshops are important Russiansof Novgorod and Moscow, where he works Theophanes the Greek, and fresco painter on wood in the fourteenth century and in the following century masterpiece stand out as the Virgin of Vladimir (Moscow) and the Monk or Andrew Rublev Rublev especially Through its icon of the Trinity, this icon of the fifteenth century is considered the most important Byzantine icon of the Russian school, represents the Trinity through the Biblical scene called Manro vision, or three angels who appear to Patriarch Abraham. It is characterized by a melancholy air of intense spirituality, in which the angel of the center with red robe, is believed to represent Christ to a tree back, on the left represents God the Father and the Spirit of the right Ghost. The perspective is typical of the Byzantine type, ie reverse, pushing away the lines under the eyes of the beholder.Somewhat later are the schools where he excelled Venetian Crete Candia Andrea Riccio, who is cred with creating the famous icon of Our Lady of Perpetual Help. Icon painting has continued to keep throughout the Modern Age, by reference to aesthetic characteristics of classical Byzantine painting, which is imposed on Italian influences. The most comprehensive collections of icons are in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, Pushkin Museum in Leningrad, at the cathedral in Sofia (Bulgaria) and the icon museum “Casa Grande” Torrej n de Ardoz (Madrid).